MP3 Tutorials and Articles
DVD Terms and Glossary
Artifact - A video defect that
occurs due to the digital conversion and/or compression process.
Artifacts can be caused by video compression, transfers, data
errors, and analog signal noise.
Aspect Ratio – The ratio of width to
height of a video image.
Authoring - The process of designing
and creating the content of a DVD.
Bit rate - A bit rate is the amount
of information (or bits) that is transferred per second (bits
per second or bps).
Book A - DVD Physical format
Book B - DVD Video format
Book C - DVD Audio format
Book D – DVD-R format
Book E – DVD-RAM format
- To record or copy information onto a rewritable disc such
as a CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-RW, DVD+R or DVD+RW.
CD - Compact Disk. A media that uses
a single track, like phongraph records. This layout of data
makes random access of data take longer, this is commonly
referred to as a long seek time. CD's have a capacity of 700MB
(depending upon the disc).
CD Recordable (CD-R) - A recordable
technology that allows you to be write to an inexpensive blank
CD once. CD capacity of CD-R media is measured in minutes (this
technology was adapted from the same as audio recordings) as
well as data capacity. There are two main CD capacities: 74 min
(650MB), and 80 min (700MB).
CD-ROM - A Compact Disc-Read Only
Memory (CD-ROM) is designed to store data in the form of text,
graphics and audio. CD-ROMs use the Yellow Book standard as
published by Philips. They cannot be recorded onto.
CD Re-Writable (CD-RW) -
A CD-RW disc can be rewritten over a
thousand times and read on MultiRead CD-ROM drives or CD-RW
compatible Audio CD players. CD-RWs support UDF (Universal Disc
Format), which allows for read-write interoperability between
all the major operating systems as well as compatibility between
rewritable and write-once media.
Constant Bit Rate
(CBR) - Constant Bit Rate is an encoding method that
maintains the same bit rate across the entire audio or video
- Any technology that is used for compressing and decompressing
data such as audio (MP3) or video (MPEG).
Decode - The process of
decompressing audio or video.
Dolby Digital - An audio coding
system used in the DVD Video format to create mono, stereo, and
DVD - DVD, introduced in 1996, was
originally known as Digital Video Disc but soon became known as
Digital Versatile Disc. It is the next generation of optical
disc storage technology. which shares the
same overall dimensions of a CD, but have significantly higher
capacities - holding from 4 to 28 times as much data.
Single sided DVDs can store 4.7GB for single layer and 8.5GB for
dual-layer disks. Double sided DVDs can store 9.4GB for single
layer and 17GB for dual-layer disks.
DVD-5 - Single-sided/single-layer DVD
with 4.7 GB storage capability.
DVD-9 - Single-sided/dual-layer DVD with
8.5 GB storage capability.
DVD-10 - Double-sided/single-layer DVD
with 9.4 GB storage capability.
DVD-18 - Double-sided/dual-layer DVD
with 17 GB storage capability.
Launched in mid-2000, this audio-only storage format similar to
CD-Audio, however offers higher quality sound from 16, 20 and
24-bit samples at a variety of sampling rates from 44.1 to
192KHz, compared to 16 bits and 44.1KHz for CDs. DVD-Audio can
also contain music videos and graphics.
DVD Burner - A piece of hardware
(i.e. a physical device) that creates a DVD disc using a laser
that “burns” the information onto the disc.
DVD Burner Software – Software that
communicates with the DVD burner. It provides instructions and
information to the hardware device that tells the drive what
to burn and how to burn.
DVD Converter – A program that is
able to switch or convert between different video formats
(ie. DVD to VCD, DVD to CD, DVD to AVI, etc).
DVD Forum - An
international association of hardware and media manufacturers
that developed the DVD definition. Members include Hitachi Ltd.,
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd., Mitsubishi Electric
Corporation, Pioneer Electric Corporation, Sony Corporation,
Thomson Multimedia, Time Warner, Inc., Toshiba Corporation, and
Victor Company of Japan Ltd. This group wants to promote broad
acceptance of the DVD-RAM and DVD+RW formats.
DVD Random Access
Memory (DVD-RAM) - A
rewritable DVD disc endorsed by Panasonic, Hitachi and Toshiba.
DVD-RAM discs with 4.7GB of storage were released in 1999, and
double-sided 9.4GB discs in 2000. DVD-RAM drives typically read
DVD-Video, DVD-ROM and CD media. The current installed base of
DVD-ROM drives and DVD-Video players cannot read DVD-RAM media.
DVD Recordable (DVD-R ) - Introduced
by Pioneer in 1998, DVD-R offers a
write-once, read-many storage format similar to CD-R and is used
to master DVD-Video and DVD-ROM discs.
DVD Ripper – Software that is able
to digitally extract data from a DVD disc and saves the data to
the computer’s hard drive which can then be burnt onto DVD or
DVD-ROM Read Only
Memory (DVD-ROM) -
Introduced in 1997, this read-only DVD disc is used for storing
data as well as audio and video. DVD-ROMs run in DVD-ROM or
DVD-RAM drives, but not DVD video players. However, most
DVD-ROM drives will play DVD-Video movies.
DVD Re-Writable (DVD-RW)
- Introduced by Pioneer, this rewritable
DVD format is similar to DVD+RW. It has a read-write capacity of
- This format was developed in cooperation
by Hewlett-Packard, Mitsubishi Chemical, Philips, Ricoh, Sony
and Yamaha. It's a rewritable format that provides full,
non-cartridge, compatibility with existing DVD-Video players and
DVD-Video - Popular
MPEG2 video format that is
designed to be used to store movies on a DVD and can be played
on most DVD players.
Encode - The process of compressing
audio or video.
ISO - International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) is a non-governmental global organization
established in 1947 that works to develop standards across goods
ISO 9660 - A widely used data
interchange format adopted in 1987. CDs created in this format
can be read by Unix, Macintosh and Windows computers. ISO 9660
is inadequate for the higher capacity recordable and erasable
MPEG - The Moving Picture Experts
Group (MPEG) is a working group under the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) that sets the standards
for encoding audio and video in digital format.
MPEG2 - MPEG2 is a second set of
flexible compression standards created by the MPEG group. This
set of standards takes advantage of the fact that over 95% of
digital video is redundant, however some portions are much less
redundant. MPEG2 handles this by using higher bit rates (i.e.
higher quality) for more complex pictures and lower bit rates
for simple pictures.
Seek Time - This refers to the
amount of time it takes to find the correct position on storage
media so that data can start to be read.
Video Object File (VOB) - A data
file used in the DVD Video format to deliver video, audio, and